pallasite meteorite

The Problem with 7 Billion Year-Old Stardust

The Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States published an article entitled: Lifetimes of interstellar dust from cosmic ray exposure ages of presolar silicon carbide. This material has been identified being some 7 billion years old. That’s about 2.4 billion years older than the Earth. Here’s the issue no one is pointing out and it is one that only Elegant Reasonism can yield insights and why that’s true. We must first recognize that elements are produced not in stellar furnaces but in the catastrophic failures of supernovae. That includes this mote of dust. The material then had to get from there to here. There are several issues with that insight.

Solar System Formation Theories

When we look back across the various theories about how our solar system formed they inevitably discuss condensing gaseous nebulae. We don’t think that’s what happened. As a part of our original systems review we did some investigations into that theory and here are some of those insights. Part of the assumption being made is that the supernovae were ‘in the vicinity but are now long gone’. The rationale for those conclusions are due to context made manifest by M1. The question is what happens when we mode shift these various issues into The Emergence Model’s logical view M5. Taking into account insights developed describing the unified Universe Bang to Bang, HST, and others to be sure we gain new insights.

Fukang Pallasite Meteorite

Fukang Pallasite Meteorite

The Fukang Meteorite, pictured at right, is the name given to a meteorite that was discovered in China. The Fukang Meteorite belongs to a class of stony-iron meteorite known as Pallasite, which may be recognized by the fragments of olivine crystals embedded in an iron-nickel matrix. According to one source, the slices of such a meteorite, when illuminated from the back, are “reminiscent of stained glass windows crafted in the ancient solar system.” If we perform, as a function of a comprehensive systems review, regression analysis on the affinity the various minerals in this object have with other known phenomena what we discover is that there is almost zero affinity with a gaseous nebula forming the solar system. The reason for that is that formation of this object is incongruous with atomic buildup in space under those conditions. We must then ask what type of construct does have that affinity and the answer to that question is: an ejecta cloud, nebula, from a supernova. When we inspect the molecular formula of olivine we find chemical affinity for the layered nuclear burning inside a star. Stars collapsing and resulting in a supernova ‘rebound’ through billions of tons of material into space. Those chemical elements almost instantly form molecular combinations and then encounter other elements formed by that same nuclear fusion processes. Still hot from formation one set of materials is immersed in the other.

What you are looking in the picture to the right is more than something called a pallasite meteorite. It is ejecta from a supernovae. The implication of that insight has implications that are 100% consistent with 7 Billion Year-Old grains of dust found recently. What might not be immediately obvious, especially if your thinking remains mired in the logic trap that is M1 (e.g. you are committing LEEs). First of all one must have the time for such material to traverse the interstellar distances involved and inside the context made manifest by M1 such time generally does not exist. When we mode shift all of this into M5 however suddenly, we do.

Wikipedia reports: The Fukang pallasite contains large, gem quality olivine, or peridot, in a nickeliron matrix. The olivines vary in shape from rounded to angular, many are fractured and they range in size from less than five millimetres to several centimetres. The main mass contains several regions of massive olivine clusters up to eleven centimetres (4.3 inches) in diameter with thin metal veins. Fo86.4 with molar Fe/Mg = 0.1367, Fe/Mn = 40.37, and Ni = 0.03 wt%. The metal matrix is mostly kamacite with an average nickel content of 6.98 wt%. Vermicular sulfide (troilite) is present in some olivine. Oxygen isotopes: δ18O 2.569 ‰, δ17O 1.179 ‰, ∆1 7O = −0.157 ‰.

Supernovae Material Distribution

There are several issues with all of this which mode shifting through Elegant Reasonism’s process & methodologies, (e.g. Recognition, Illumination, and Analysis), reconciles across a plurality of models. One is that the Events producing such materials are reconciled through cosmochemistry and astrominerology (e.g. supernovae). Second is that the age of the Universe dramatically increases under The Emergence Model’s logical view M5 such that there is considerable time for such materials to traverse the intervening distances during their EFPS2 journey. Thirdly this material was not ‘formed’ in the nebula which collapsed into our solar system, it was formed in the ejecta nebula associated with the supernova event, and that is not what predominant science is claiming but it is the only reasonable conclusion.

SN 1604 Kepler’s Supernova

While this general description of events is very likely neither new nor original, what is new is the ability to place these events into a context that allows for them to transpire and that is what Elegant Reasonism brings to the discussion. That Elegant Reasonism produced The Emergence Model is yet again another example of its power. Yet another example of its ‘correctness’ is that while it simultaneously explains the Fukang Pallasite it also provides the means to perceive and engage the unified Universe. I underscore the word simultaneously. Noodle on the implications of being able to do both of those tasks at the same time.

When we realize the chemical processes underway in such circumstances we can come to no other conclusions.


New Stellar Classifications

NGC 6302

If we look at the Energy Signature Taxonomy expected from The Emergence Model being able to describe the Universe Bang to Bang we should see what might otherwise be called ‘mini-bangs’. That is Events which have heretofore been categorized as nebula or supernova events simply because were not thinking in terms of stellar collisions so violent they could initiate a ‘mini-bang’. Perhaps NGC6302 is such an Event, but that is speculation at this point. However, the circumstantial evidence is completely consistent with the holistic set of circumstances made manifest by The Emergence Model.

There are any number of example nebula already in inventory. What is new are the considerations that would be made manifest as a function of systems reviews mode shifting these objects between M1, M2, and M5. That is something our team did not have time to complete. We would also like to reiterate that someone, somewhere, may come up with some other model completely compliant with the realm of c’s that is better than The Emergence Model. We hope they do because then we could employ more than one model closing to unification within the plurality requirement of Elegant Reasonism.

Holistic Summary

A 7 Billion year-old bit of stardust interesting as it may be does nothing but lend credence and support not only to The Emergence Model but the intellectual asset patent pending 16405134 Elegant Reasonism. To be in a position to tie one facet of some discovery into the body of knowledge is one thing but to have thousands align within a net new insight never before considered is amazing beyond words. To be able to fully couple these motes of dust holistically in to a comprehensive set of circumstances capable of describing the entire Universe Bang to Bang and beyond is simply something I never fathomed reading, much less having personally developed.


Charles C McGowen, CEO SolREI, Inc, West Palm Beach, Florida.

Elegant Reasonism 101 Course

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Also see our article here: Visible Spectra and Solar System Formation



#ElegantReasonism #EmergenceModel #Unification #UnifiedUniverse #Stardust #Pallasite #NickelIron #Olivine #Supernova #Ejecta #DrakeEquation #FermiParadox


By Charles McGowen

Charles C McGowen is a strategic business consultant. He studied Aerospace Engineering at Auburn University '76-'78. IBM hired him early in '79 where he worked until 2003. He is now Chairman & CEO of SolREI, Inc. ORCID: