M2 ‘Invariant Mass’ Model

M2 is the originalEncapsulatedInterpretiveModel (EIM) envisioned by Albert Einstein. Einstein did not believe that mass was variant. Einstein wrote a letter to Lincoln Barnett, 19 June 1948, on this subject. The points Einstein made in that letter were incorporated into M5. M1 retains the core concepts of M2, and the distinction between the two is in how they treat mass. M2 retains Einstein’s precipice. M1 treats mass as variant. It is likely that such details were so commonly encountered by Einstein that he was never afforded any encounter with Susanne Langer or her observations. Had that occurred in 1948 the world would be a very different place today.

Einstein Letter
Einstein stating his belief that mass is invariant.

This short 20 minute video will help to set up the issues surrounding how we all fell prey to the logic traps created by the Langer Epistemology Errors.


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Readers here are cautioned: if this is your first time encountering all of this that none of the words that follow are in the fundamental context of your previous experience. Elegant Reasonism leverages a philosophical framework which eliminates Langer Epistemology Errors and juxtaposes intrinsic context relative to and respective of encapsulated interpretive models of the Universe, one of which must now close to unification. The Emergence Model’s logical view M5, a product of a some 15 year R&D effort was the first such model to close to unification and it is included here in fulfillment of that requirement. It is included in the patent for exactly the same reason. These models manifest context. IT IS IMPROPER TO JUDGE ONE MODEL FROM THE CONTEXT OF ANOTHER. BE WARNED. EACH MODEL IS DISCRETE AND UNIQUE. CONSEQUENTLY ALL SUCH MODELS ARE CONSIDERED “ENCAPSULATED” BECAUSE THEY ESTABLISH 100% OF THEIR RELATIVE AND RESPECTIVE CONTEXTS.

The Cogent Description

The reason this paragraph does not exist for M2 is that it does not unify physics. Writing such a paragraph requires unification because all forces must be in context of one another and how they relate to all core concepts of the model. All objects in every frame should be able to be referenced by a single geometric basis point and fully coupled to all forces in such a reference frame across all scales.

Core Concepts

M2 generally defines the core abstraction concepts as:

  • Space – the dimensions of height, depth, and width within which all things exist and move.
  • Time – the indefinite continued progress of existence and events in the past, present, and future regarded as a whole.
  • Mass – is both a property of a physical body typically coherent, typically large body of matter with no definite shape and is also a measure which resists changes in its state of motion (e.g. acceleration) when a net force is applied. Relativistic measures, in M2, hold that mass is invariant under relativity. That is to say inertia, momentum, etc. are considerations external to the actual mass. In M2 there is only one quantity “m” associated with the measure of mass its usually construed to be its ‘rest mass’ as indicated in Albert Einstein’s letter to Lincoln Barnett, 19 June 1948. The factors causing the changes usually associated with M1, are here, external to the measured mass.
  • Energy – power derived from the utilization of physical or chemical resources, especially to provide light and heat or to work machines.

Historical References

Students and investigators should note that it is not fair to judge any of these historical references by modern information sciences standards. That would constitute ‘moving the goal post’ and is generally prohibited by Elegant Reasonism. The idea here is to present the thinking, at the time, by that original author. Where this specifically comes into affect is commission of Langer Epistemology Errors (LEEs); which to make this point salient was first quantified by Susanne K Langer in 1948 and codified by SolREI INC. Another facet of unraveling historical points of view relative to requirements of unification are both logical and physical views in context both Systems Engineering and of LEEs. Subsequent to this contextual update in our thinking we are then required to employ critical situational awareness thinking that something may be logically correct yet remain physically different.

“We can not solve problems using the same thinking we used when we created them.”, ~ Albert Einstein


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