C-2017_K2This Hubble Space Telescope image shows a fuzzy cloud of dust, called a coma, surrounding the comet C/2017 K2 PANSTARRS (K2), the farthest active comet ever observed entering the solar system. Hubble snapped images of K2 when the frozen visitor was over 2.4 billion kilometres from the Sun, just beyond Saturn's orbit. Even at that remote distance, sunlight is warming the frigid comet, producing a 128,000-kilometre-wide coma that envelops a tiny, solid nucleus. K2 has been traveling for millions of years from its home in the Oort Cloud, a spherical region at the edge of our solar system. This frigid area contains hundreds of billions of comets, the icy leftovers from the formation of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. The image was taken in June 2017 by Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3. Links: NASA Press Release Schematic of comet C/2017 K2's approach to the Solar System

Comet 2017 K2


C/2017 K2 (PanSTARRS) is an Oort cloud comet with an inbound hyperbolic orbit, discovered in May 2017 at a distance beyond the orbit of Saturn when it was 16 AU (2.4 billion km) from the Sun. Precovery images from 2013 were located by July. We might add here that date occurred five years after our original systems review concluded and two years before our application published by the USPTO here. Then it was the most distant active inbound comet ever found, discovered when it was some 2.4 billion kilometers from the Sun. That put it between the orbital distances of Uranus and Saturn. Hubble Space Telescope observations indicated the comet had a large nucleus less than 18 kilometers in diameter. Now visible in small telescopes C/2017 K2 will make its closest approach to planet Earth on July 14 and closest approach to the Sun this December. Its extended coma and developing tail are seen here at a distance of some 290 million kilometers, a mere 16 light-minutes away. Comet C/2017 K2 (PanSTARRS) could be one of the largest we’ve ever spotted. Now, it’s drawing closer and closer to Earth, and is expected to be nearest to us on July 14. Astronomers estimate that Comet C/2017 K2 (PanSTARRS) has been traveling from the Oort cloud for some 3 million years in a hyperbolic orbit. By July 2022, the celestial visitor will be some 172 million miles (277 million km) from Earth and gradually getting closer. Comet K2 first became visible in small telescopes from the Northern Hemisphere in May and will remain visible until September. After mid-September, it becomes closer to the southwestern horizon as seen from the Northern Hemisphere. Thereafter it will be best for observers in the Southern Hemisphere.

The orbit determination of C/2017 K2 is hyperbolic at the 11σ level, but it is somewhat similar in terms of q and i to those of the long-period comets C/1969 O1-A (Kohoutek), q=1.72 au, e=0.9991, i=86.3, C/1998 M5 (LINEAR), q=1.74 au, e=0.9960, i=82.2, and C/2003 T2 (LINEAR), q=1.79 au, e=0.9997, i=87.5. Although the present-day orbital solution of C/2017 K2 is slightly hyperbolic, it may have followed an elliptical path in the past, and N -body simulations can confirm or reject this hypothesis. Independent analysis confirms the results in Kr ́olikowska & Dybczy ́nski (2018), but the probability of this object having an interstellar origin seems to be significantly higher than that obtained by Hui et al. (2018), although their integrations only reach 1 Myr into the past. Comet C/2017 K2 joins the growing sample of dynamically old Oort cloud comets that, in the case of currently hyperbolic ones, corresponds to the subsample of bound objects discussed by de la Fuente Marcos et al. (2018). The comet has traveled a vast distance, passing the orbits of Neptune, Uranus, Saturn, and Jupiter before entering the asteroid belt that separates the inner solar system from the outer.

No Closer To Earth Than Mars

Now it is in our neck of the woods having entered the inner solar system according to SpaceWeather.com. It’s due to make its closest pass to Earth on July 14, though the comet will still be further away from us than Mars.

Hubble Uncovers the Farthest Active Inbound Comet Yet Seen

The Hubble Space Telescope image at the top of this page shows a fuzzy cloud of dust called a coma surrounding the comet C/2017 K2 PANSTARRS (K2), the farthest active comet ever observed entering the solar system. Hubble snapped images of K2 when the frozen visitor was 1.5 billion miles from the Sun, just beyond Saturn‘s orbit. Even at that remote distance, sunlight is warming the frigid comet producing an 80,000-mile-wide coma that envelops a tiny, solid nucleus.

K2 has been traveling for millions of years from its home in the Oort Cloud, a spherical region at the edge of our solar system. This frigid area contains hundreds of billions of comets, the icy leftovers from the formation of the solar system 4.6 billion years ago. (According to M1 based calculations.)

The image was taken in June 2017 by Hubble’s Wide Field Camera 3.

Credits:NASA, ESA, and D. Jewitt (UCLA)


Solar System Formation


There is not enough real estate in this article to unravel all the assumptions that have been made by popular media releases and many scientists not just on this comet but about the solar system as a whole. There is a very real point in that predicate sentence here and it is this: The words and language will not make much sense to you if you are not also aware of the utility process, framework and epistemology that produced them. If this is your first encounter with Elegant Reasonism or unification, then you have a great deal of work to do. Comets were of special interest during our original systems review for a variety of reasons. Life on Earth threaded the proverbial eye of the needle a great deal smaller than most believe, and that journey is not over yet. Many if not most believe that the volume of water on our planet is static. We do not. Our review suggests that the volume of water on our planet has been replenished by objects exactly like C-2017 K2.  We should point out that this comet is larger than the one which killed the dinosaurs. Such impacts are Extinction Level Events (ELEs). Several assumptions are eradicated once we are able to describe the unified Universe Bang to Bang.

Mode Shifting a great deal of astronomical data which the original systems review suggests that the unified Universe is unfathomably ancient, and this is important to understand for many reasons. There are many status quo assumptions obfuscating that understanding, the least of which is superluminal confusion based on interferometer data. The reason the age of the unified Universe is important relative to the formation of our solar system has to do with ejection velocities of material from supernova Events. The reason why that is true has to do with the velocity material that is typically ejected due to the dynamics of those events and the distance they must travel through interstellar space. The point here is that the material comprising C-2017 K2 did not coalesce from some dust cloud. That assumption is laughable. It is laughable if only because of the purity of metals and molecular combinations. Take the periodic table and randomly mix atoms into a soup then place them in a gravitationally bound cloud. You run regression analysis on that cloud and tell us the odds and permutations you will derive our solar system as it exists today. You can’t do that. The reason you can’t is that is not how our solar system formed. Material forming our solar system came from supernova Events. The neucleosynthesis taking place from those stellar nuclear cores is the only way the elements we find today could possibly have arrived here.  That hard cold fact means that material crossed interstellar distances to get here. That means somewhere out there at least one supernova Event happened and produced the material in C-2017 K2, and that material has in fact traveled the distance from where it was produced to its current location within our solar system right now. That comet is here. The elements from the periodic table it contains came from a finite set of sources. Those sources were very far away then they were created. The velocities imparted to them force us to look at the age of the unified Universe. Pull out a calculator and some simple math will probably show you the improbability for that material to have traveled here in the time available since the Big Bang (as instantiated by status quo thinking e.g. M1). That material is in fact here. That means there must be another way to reconcile the various issues, and that way is Elegant Reasonism. Investigators effectively employing Elegant Reasonism in a fully compliant manner will find that the age of the unified Universe is ancient in the extreme, which means that material has ample time to cross interstellar space to arrive where and how we find it today. As we said, there are a great many concepts which must be mode shifted in order to justify what I just said. However, we are confident that anyone else who fully comprehends Elegant Reasonism and The Emergence Model beyond just our Press Release entitled Unification Accomplished will in fact come to the same conclusions we have.


Take the time to fully comprehend Elegant Reasonism and The Emergence Model. Then conduct your own systems review. Mode Shift the same concepts we did. Make sure you can mode shift back and forth between M1, M2, and M5 effectively with reasonable Six Sigma derived numbers employing industry standard ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems (QMS) standards. You may want to go through the various presenations available, including the one discussing mathematical proofs. Be prepared for several aspects of your journey with all of this. One aspect is that individuals highly invested in status quo thinking will inevitably transition through industry standard stages of grief coping with all of this. Another is coping with the deeper implications to other traditional epistemologies.

If you want proof Elegant Reasonism is correct. Go to any telescope and look at C-2017 K2. There before your very eyes is all the proof you need in order to mode shift what it is you thought you knew into fully compliant context of the unified Universe.

C-2017 K2 Constitutes PROOF that Elegant Reasonism is correct.


Setting aside all the astronomical paradigms that get shifted when coming to full comprehension of what is being said here we are also forced to shift a great many others as well. Unification demands concepts capable of integrating everything real and that means credible evidence chains linking whole domains of discourse and their constituent detail sets back to anchor points made manifest by EIMs capable of and compliant with the unified Universe. The only EIM we are aware of today that can do that is The Emergence Model. One impilcation of all this is that civilization needs to immediately employ Elegant Reasonism in the conduct of a comprehensive systems review across all aspects of civilization. We need to help each other comprehend the full meaning before we do something really stupid that curtails life on our planet.



#ElegantReasonism #EmergenceModel #Unification #C-2017_K2 #PanSTARRS #ELE #Comet #Sol #SolarSystem #Supernova #M5


By Charles McGowen

Charles C McGowen is a strategic business consultant. He studied Aerospace Engineering at Auburn University '76-'78. IBM hired him early in '79 where he worked until 2003. He is now Chairman & CEO of SolREI, Inc. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2439-1707