BX442Grand Design Spiral Galaxy BX442

The Grand Design Spiral Galaxy BX442

BX442 has been described as the oldest yet discovered ‘grand design spiral galaxy’ yet found. It was discovered using the Hubble Space Telescope.  BX442 holds a special place in history because it simultaneously represents many of the issues, paradoxes, and facets of traditional thinking manifesting the logic trap that is M1.

Concept Basics

Hubble Tuning Fork
Hubble Tuning Fork of Galaxy Development

Nature,(in(press((July(19(2012), Dr. David Law et.al.’s paper said of BX442: Although relatively common in the local Universe, only one grand-design spiral galaxy has been spectroscopically confirmed 1 to lie at z>2 (HDFX 28; z=2.011), and may prove to be a major merger that simply resembles a spiral in projection. The rarity of spirals has been explained as a result of disks being dynamically ‘hot’ at z>2 2,3,4,5 which may instead favor the formation of commonly-observed clumpy structures 6,7,8,9,10. Alternatively, current instrumentation may simply not be sensitive enough to detect spiral structures comparable to those in the modern Universe 11. At redshifts <2, the velocity dispersion of disks decreases 12, and spiral galaxies are more numerous by z~1 7,13,14,15. Here we report observations of the grand design spiral galaxy Q2343-BX442 at z=2.18. Spectroscopy of ionized gas shows that the disk is dynamically hot, implying an uncertain origin for the spiral structure. The kinematics of the galaxy are consistent with a thick disk undergoing a minor merger, which can drive the formation of short-lived spiral structure 16,17,18. A duty cycle of < 100 Myr for such tidally induced spiral structure in a hot massive disk is consistent with their rarity.

Traditional Concept Contemplation

The User Library has papers discussing the various positions many have held over the years and we encourage users to review that material. Understanding the challenges tradition face requires recognition of Langer Epistemology Errors and in a broader sense too Elegant Reasonism as an epistemology in its own right. How the realm in which we exist is perceived will determine how anyone answers this question or describes this concept. This is where Elegant Reasonism as an investigative epistemology comes into its own and does what traditional epistemology have failed to do for centuries. How this specific concept is articulated is a function of which traditional epistemology is employed. And while I am completely capable of articulating those ensuing discussions SolREI management policy is not to place them here. The policy rationale being taken is that these are personal questions and that each individual must wrestle and it is not our place to tell them what to think. We can provide the tools, methodologies, processes, technologies, and epistemology for analytical reconciliation but it is up to the individual whether or not to employ them (e.g. how to think, not what to think). Our mission is not to undermine traditional belief systems. Rather our objective is to empower individuals seeking truth as a function of the actual real unified Universe. Whether or not that describes you is your choice, not ours.


The science of mathematics applied here are standard for the astrophysics community, but the meaning of the terms being compared mode shifts depending on the fundamental interpretation of foundational context (e.g. the set of models employed).

Mode Shifting Concept Context


We are going to forego the M1 description because everything published elsewhere online satisfies this requirement here.


Here we find the intrinsic nature of The Emergence Model‘s logical view to be key in empowering mode shifting BX442 relative to the unified Universe as defined by M5. The key insight factors integrated which empower mode shifting BX442 are:

  • Redefining the nature of space eliminates limitations previously imposed having the effect of the following affects:
    • Eliminating the Inflationary Theory consequently eliminating z-factors from the discussion
      • Eliminates previously imposed limitations of velocity by shifting constancy associated with dimensional limitations to the M5 defined process of Severance
      • Vindicating Edwin Hubble Red Shift Numbers
      • Rapidity‘ then supersedes ‘c’ in velocity calculations
    • Normalizing the factors here resolve to increase the holistic age of the Universe significantly, especially the time since the Big Bang
    • Change Jacobi Field calculations such that Graviton fields, not warped spacetime, changes the frequency arm of interstellar photons resulting in their vector changes
  • Rule Set Changes
    • Dismantle the spacetime construct as logical in nature and simply replaces it with The Emergence Model‘s equally valid logical view as defined by M5 (e.g. M1 and M5 are simultaneously true).
    • z-factors are replaced by Rapidity calculations
    • The Inflationary Theory is eliminated from consideration because Black Hole growth can not reconcile the corollary ‘infinite compression’ of ‘rapid expansion’. Because this theory is eliminated so are its constructs, including terms like z-factors and any need for associated constants, (all of which can be mode shifted into The Emergence Model).
  • Noted Langer Epistemology Errors are eliminate completely:
    • Logic Trap of finding a paradoxical grand design spiral galaxy at such distances (10.7 billion lightyears) which requires some 11 billion years to form under accepted principles of gravitation
    • Concept Compression Issues including the aforementioned formation time of 11 billion years does not leave enough time for BX442 to have formed under M1 definition of the Big Bang, (e.g. 13.8 – 10.7 = 3.1, which otherwise requires us to try and rationalize shoving the 11 billion year formation time into a time frame of only 3.1 billion years. Hence the phrase ‘concept compression’.)

Developing the Concept Treatise

The cogent description of The Emergence Model‘s logical view M5 serves to set up conditions where various paradoxes noted for BX442 vanish completely.

The previous section does a simplistic task of Recognition of the issues. Conducting such recognition under the purview of a Systems Review would employ the ISO 9001 Unification Tool or its equivalent. Working through the Illumination phase then completes associated Translation Matrices consistent with the definitions installed in the unification tool meeting QMS standards. Obviously the degree to which these various tasks are completed are a function of the original investigation’s objectives and goals. Our original objectives and goals were simply to complete the quest so this discussion could be articulated here to the degree it is and while we may have more information than is published here, what is here is the official statement and it may be updated as civilization as a whole gains more insights and cognition over fundamental issues.

Many areas from the User Library have been linked in previous sections and again in this sentence. Registered users subscribing to company insights are covered under either the ERGUL or ERCUL licensing depending on whether or not they are engaged in revenue generating activities.

Concept Treatise


BX442 is a grand design spiral galaxy whose light reaching us is some 10.7 billion years old.

Known Unknowns


As of this writing a comprehensive systems review of the WMAP data has not yet been conducted in context of a comprehensive inventory of all real objects M1 based z-factors, in order to reconcile the actual real age of the Universe and its estimated size. Also note that in the previous sentence ‘age of the Universe’ implies “our Universe” which further implies the area of actual real Universe occupying the area inside our particle horizon. This distinction is drawn because the statistical circles discovered within the WMAP data demonstrate material existing the Universe beyond our particle horizon influencing the early material of the area covered by the WMAP program.

Z-factors above 2 are commonly encountered but they become significantly more scarce the higher that number become. Simplistically mode shifting z-factors to hubble red shift numbers and simplistically using that as a multiple of the speed of light we can draw a simplistic assessment for reconsideration of these various factors and data points. If we find a maximum z-factor of 22 and an object at 13.8 billion lightyears that might normalize to an age potentially an order of magnitude greater than current estimates and a diameter of our particle horizon considerably larger than current estimates. Together these issues conspire to afford BX442 plenty of time since the Big Bang, as defined by The Emergence Model, to have formed into the Grand Design Spiral Galaxy we believe it to be. The known unknowns here are the details associated with the z-factor inventory, systems review of WMAP on these various points, and a holistic assessment of the body of work performed by SolREI by others worldwide. This latter point may be somewhat addressed by the material being placed online for that purpose.

Summary Conclusions

BX442 represents an example logic trap within M1 because it should not exist in its believed state where we have in fact found it. Grand design spiral galaxies take some 11 billion years to form and using M1 distance calculations is some 10.7 billion lightyears distant in a, again M1 based, Universe determined to be some 13.8 billion years old. The Emergence Model extends both the size of ‘our’ Universe to something likely well over 100 lightyears in diameter, and potentially greater than 70 billion years in age. Even these numbers may be greatly revised upwards on comprehensive systems review by the international community once full recognition of Elegant Reasonism is embraced.

There is a closing note on this post and it is that this article was written 1) from memory, 2) in the space of less than 3 hours, including all links and background material, and 3) some 8 years after the initial insights were developed. And that is an example of the power one may wield derived from Elegant Reasonism. Wield it humbly, and with great compassion. Wield it to benefit humanity and civilization. Please.

Elegant Reasonism 101 Course

The Elegant Reasonism 101 course now in heavy development is available for registered users to follow along with us as we work to bring this material online. The course is free during the development effort. Once that effort is complete the course will be $249.95. Those wishing to be certified on Elegant Reasonism will need this course for that certification. Learn how to perceive and engage the actual real unified Universe. Understand why predominant thinking does not, can not, and never will unify physics. Comprehend why accomplishing unification is more than one discipline of science. Know what it means ethically. Understand competitive action in the emerging landscape of international business. Register your business for a commercial license today!




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By Charles McGowen

Charles C McGowen is a strategic business consultant. He studied Aerospace Engineering at Auburn University '76-'78. IBM hired him early in '79 where he worked until 2003. He is now Chairman & CEO of SolREI, Inc. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2439-1707